Indian Writing in English: A Reflection on the Emerging Creative and Critical Trends

Text of my Plenary Session talk in the National Seminar on Contemporary South Asian Literature in English, 20 – 21 March 2017, at The Centre for Foreign Languages (English), Central University of South Bihar, Gaya

Venue: Renaisance, Dayanand-Sushila Cultural Centre, A.P. Colony, Gaya

Friends,

You will agree we as poets belong to the present, which shapes our creative consciousness. Some of us have also been writing vis-à-vis the crises of essential ideas, beliefs and systems and suffering isolation in our own mind but not without leading to a reconciliation in some way.

To quote Octavio Paz from his Nobel lecture on Dec 8, 1990 at Stockholm, “It may seem paradoxical to say that we have been expelled from the present, but it is a feeling we all had at some moment. Some of us experienced it first as a condemnation, later transformed into consciousness and action. The search for the present is neither the pursuit of an earthly paradise nor that of a timeless eternity: it is the search for the real reality.” Discovering this “real reality” could be tricky because we ourselves are part of it, its disintegration, division or disappearance, or its conversion into a the instant or fixed present. To quote from Shiv K Kumar’s poem, ‘Coromandel Beach’: “I know/if I probe any deeper/all the particles will/slither into the hole–/the sea will belch/and all evidence descend/into the subliminal bed.”

The despairing dehumanizing influences of the socalled civilized existence-its socioeconomic realities, the tragic mess one is obliged to suffer-have left deeper marks on the contemporary psyche. To quote O.P. Bhatnagar: “We’re afraid of speaking the truth/And resisting whatever is unjust/Foul and corrupt in our bones.” (The Inaudible Landscape,p. 10)

Several sensitive poets derive sustenance from encounter with the immediate and the tangible; they act by trying to understand what it is vis-à-vis their own dreams, often seen in half sleep-restless and fraught with countless dangers and surprises; they explore their own mind, body, psyche, their own life. sometimes with an awareness of lack of harmony with their surrounding. They are baffled at the life and living in the shadows of those religious, political, social systems that sustain us at the same time as they oppress us. Sometimes their anguished awareness invites them to self-examination, at other times the sense of being different or not belonging appears as a challenge, a spur that incites them to action, to go forth and face the outside world, to reflect on its genesis, the past and the future.

They reflect on the condition of the individuals isolated from the society and ponder over various levels of human relationship and problems of existence; perversion, corruption, degeneration, morbidity, privation, insecurity; terrors of bloodshed; pain and agony of aimless killings and death; feeling of helplessness; awareness of political and social turpitude; mockery of idealism, values and morality; tendency to manouvre truth; game of convenience; exploitation of the poor and innocent; in short, the hypocrisy operating at all levels. They address themselves to embodiments of modern corruption even as they try to betray what it is like to be a human being vis-à-vis new set of vulgarities every now and then.

Some of them make poetry out of arguments with themselves: they are driven to understand themselves, their lives. Their ‘personal’ voice is animated by issues and arguments around the mind/body relation, around what most people try to keep concealed-the sexual feelings, the sensations of the flesh; like any good artist, they also seek to make life show itself. They write with the awareness of what is denied in our ordinary existence, what is beneath the skin of things around, the psychospiritual strains, the moral dilemmas, the betrayals, and the paradoxes.

There are certain poets who combine personal memories with history while there is some kind of a neo-mysticism in the pursuit of others, showing subtle absorption of motifs and memories from their own roots/past in exploring the meaning of their various co-existing lives. The philosophical insight and artistic value of poetic creation make many a recent poet authentic.

My observations, howsoever general, should motivate teachers and researchers to explore new voices and study them as part of the curriculum. It disappoints me, and damages the cause of South Asian writing in English, when a young teacher or researcher tells me that in their college or university research on new or living authors is not permitted. Speaking as a poet, and if we claim a belonging to what we call Indian English Writing, then, as academics, we should ensure that poets like me (or Prabhat K Singh, or others present here) are not dumped without being read or evaluated. A little large heartedness is necessary in our own interest, that is, for being remembered as Indian English poets and writers. The dynamics of recent writing needs to be understood through analysis and criticism. Otherwise, the cause will die, repeating the praise for a handful of socalled well known poets and writers, and recycling research. Let’s shed our ego.

Speaking as an academic, let me share with you that before I retired in December 2015, and as long as the one-year MPhil programme continued at ISM (now IIT), I, as Professor and Head, not only encouraged students to write their dissertations on new authors and poets but also on new books of their choice. They explored works of such marginalized or new poets and authors as R. Rabindranath Menon, Pronab Kumar Majumder, Niranjan Mohanty, V V B Ramarao, Y S Rajan, A P J Abdul Kalam, S L Peeran, Syed Ameeruddin, Hazara Singh, P K Joy, D C Chambial, I K Sharma, Maha Nand Sharma, B Ahmad, Pashupati Jha, Vihang Naik, Manas Bakshi, Biplab Majumdar, P. Raja, R K Singh, Jaishree Misra, Mamang Dai, Tamsula Ao, S Radhamani, Sudha Iyer, Nirmala Pillai, Venu Arora, Dipanwita Mukerjee etc and a little better known Mani Rao, Tabish Khair, Manu Joseph, Raj Kamal Jha, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Jhumpa Lahiri, Eve Enseler (who wrote Vagina Monologues), Raewyn Alexander (who wrote Fat), and Ross Donlon. My other colleagues there continue to guide research on several new authors from Pakistan, Bangla Desh and Sri Lanka.

A seminar like this provides us with an opportunity to discover and interact about new talents. Many of them have been writing and publishing against various odds. Let me mention my latest discovery, Kalpna Singh-Chitnis. Like Tabish Khair, she is born, brought up and educated in Gaya. She taught Political Science at Gaya College before moving to the USA to pursue her interest in film directing at the New York Film Academy Universal Studios in Hollywood. A Bihar Rajbhasha awardee, translator, editor of a literary journal Life and Legend, and founder and director at Silent River Film festival, Kalpna Singh is now based in Los Angeles, California.

Her poems are refreshingly fascinating. “Let’s just be, whoever we are”-this is how she seeks to bare the soul, our being at every level. Bare Soul (published by Partridge India, 2015) is her fourth poetry collection. She writes simple, sensuous and passionate poems that are spiritually elevating. She uses natural elements as metaphors for a complex of human emotions that connect her to the whole world. Her voice is “as original and cross-cultural as it is universal and classic.” One can hear the mystic in her quest: “I have come all the way/not to try your love for me;//I’m here to tell–/I can’t afford not to love any more!” (p. 12). Like many women poets the world over, she too declares: “My body is no longer my limitation” (p 19) and “we savor the darkness bestowed upon us/leading us toward each other/our wings are bruised/and there is no sky above our heads,/but we have what the heavens don’t;//like a twine in the candle/we burn together, we light together.” (Ancient Love, p. 29)

Kalpna is innocent, deep and perceptive, as she explores the ancient question, “Who am I?” and wonders if she’s “a bare soul without any face?” adding: “I’m able to see myself in a moment/beyond past, present and future/walking my way” (p 82). She exposes in Bare Soul a woman’s “wild inner beauty” as she articulates in varying tones male-female relationship: “I can’t be a disaster for nothing” (p 19) and “It’s now time for me to empty my soul/roll into the abundance of silence/to hear my voice… “

The women poets in-look, and outlook too, is challenging. They examine, as their poetry reveals, their private and public life, or everyday experiences boldly. They integrate the flesh into their beliefs and representations just as they have been traditionally linking themselves to their home, family, motherhood, social life, solitude, god, nature, myths. With the profound changes that have taken place in their lives, their choices, and their opportunities in the recent period, their status, roles, occupation, and legal position, they now voice their own visions and understanding of the everyday life, often cutting across cultures and regions. When they portray their sexuality, or comment on our sexual politics, they also tell us how woman is also master of her own place in poetical creation.

Several new collections that I could lay my hands on demonstrate their sensitivities and struggles that appeal for their lack of pedantry, moral commentary, or unnecessary romanticizing. They exploit the medium to understand why and how of life on the one hand, and to enrich and celebrate the female consciousness, redeeming their physical and spiritual existence, on the other. They sound warm, vibrant and capable.

Let’s also take note of certain obvious realities. Quite a number of our contemporary poets – male or female, in their 30s, 40s, 50s, or 60s, with a 20th century consciousness-have learnt to live with a world in upheaval. They have grown up in very disappointing external conditions of living. It has been normal for them (in fact, it’s one of our collective cultural traits as Indians) to think intuitively, and/or turn personal, inward, godward, or spirit-ward; their capability lies in their emotional sensitivity than in intellectual abstraction. It is not their escapism but an urge for changing the situation for themselves.

A Kashmiri woman poet, Syeda Afshana, boldly disapproves of politicians and people who hold anti-women views, is critical of the media for reducing Kashmir to “propaganda symbolism.” She touches themes such as bloodshed, violence, insurgency, loss, sacrifice, and relationship. It is, however, her “different” attitude that makes her notable. Her sadness is evident when she says, “A scream/that is only mine, just mine/and has remained unchanged/since times immemorial.” (The Fugitive Sunshine, p. 24)

Writing in response to the gang rape of a 23-year old girl (Nirbhaya) in New Delhi three years ago, Chandni Singh feels part of every woman that gets raped. Let me quote from her poem ‘I am a Woman in India’:

I can hold my own on issues

about the environment.

I can wax eloquent about literature and music.

I am told, I am the future;

and for a moment I am bent into believing

in the bubble I have bought into.

But every morning

I cower.

My ego slouches

as it is castrated at the hands of

crotch-clutching goondas.

I have lost count:

there are too many to fight.

I may be liberated. And educated,

but my fire has been doused.

Neither rhetoric nor review can

bring me solace.

And so, I turn the other cheek.

I have become deaf to the whistles and

blind to the lewdness.

I adjust my dupatta

and look straight ahead

as they line the streets and pucker their mouths.

I am just a woman in India.

http://www.themindfulword.org/2013/woman-in-india-poem-chandni-singh/#J17f6gUsRfEhHdpV.99

Let me mention a couple of other recent instances reported in the media. In the neighbouring Afghanistan, some dozen Kabul women, who call poetry their sword, are determined to protect their new-found freedom despite constant death threats from the Talibans. Poetry is their form of resistance in a taboo-ridden, extremely conservative and almost illiterate society that treat poetry writing as sin. Karima Shabrang, for example, uses explicit images of intimacy: “I miss you… my hands are stretching from the ruins of Kabul… I want to invite you to my room for delicious smoke… and you will give me refuge in your shivering red body.” More and more women there are waging fight for the rights, including their rights to write and be heard.

HAIKU

Freedom to express themselves freely and creatively is something most women find hard to have, but some of them, not necessarily subscribing to feminist practices, have honestly and boldly shown how their modernity lies in fashioning a new language for themselves, for new ways of seeing, understanding and interpreting humankind and the world, for their attempt to change “thinking and growing.” Here haiku writing comes in handy. It’s in keeping with the current minimalist trend. Some examples:

“Bathing in bubbles/my breasts turn into mountains–/glistening with snow” (Pam Penny)

“May morning green fly/in my pink lipstick, you chose/a beautiful death” (Susan Kerr)

“Remembering last/summer’s infidelity:/your tongue in my cheek” (Sheila Glen Bishop)

“my youth has gone–/a solitary crow circles/adding his lament” (Janice M Bostok)

“pregnant again–/the fluttering of moths/against the window” (Janice M Bostok)

“cleaning the bedroom–/the warmth of her shirt/left in the sun” (Michael Dylan Welch)

“her fingers push/the roots into the earth–/touch-me-not” (R.K.Singh)

“green stones–/ the moss conquers/ the mountain” (Mohd Azim Khan)

I began with poets’ quest for the present. They are always in search of new ways of saying, the new experience of language, the new ways of expressing what we see, feel and think. Now as I talk about haiku writing, which is the shortest lyric poem, let me clarify: haiku poems always deal with the present; they are written in the present tense to create a sense of the moment of experience as a rule. It’s three lines, conventionally consisting of 5-7-5 syllables and one season word (or Kigo, as they call), follow the principles of comparison, contrast, or association between the images. In the words of a Canadian haiku poet Betty Drevniok, “In haiku the something and the something else are set down together in clearly stated images. Together they complete and fulfill each other as one particular event.” That is, haiku is a complete poem for the audience to relate to.

For example, “a spring nap/downstream cherry trees/in bud.” What is experienced, but not said, is the thought that buds on a tree can be compared to flowers taking a nap. The image of cherry bud could also be compared to a number of items just as something else in spring landscape can be compared to a nap without naming the thing? The reader is free to imagine, or experience, and create a new haiku!

I have been reading and writing a variety of haiku over the last three decades or so, and have developed a taste for only such haiku (without differentiating between haiku, which is conventionally objective, impersonal, and relates to nature, and senryu, which is light and has humour, irony or satire related to human events) that make use of concrete imagery, or sensation of a lived moment, and not abstractions.

Over the last few decades, haiku has developed as world poetry, and the 700 years old traditional Japanese form has been internationalized, providing to the poets in every language, and especially in English, an immense possibility to experiment. They have been sharing their moments of various experiences of poetical value in three (short-long-short) lines, reduced to minimum details. (That is, there is no room for adjectives, adverbs, mean details or comments, no rational analysis, no amplification, but just the essential of the moment of experience or observation, in a good pragmatic use of the language. The poet lets the readers connect with his/her context.)They have used the short poem form to convey their personal feelings and emotional states, everyday reality, sensual vitality, wit and humour, and even reflections and opinions. But what matters for the right effect is whether these point to, or relate to an actual, lived experience and evoke deep feelings in the reader; whether the poet could catch certain bright moments of life with his/her internal eyes.

The important thing is to write in a stripped down, terse style the exact experience, or the image (of it), and not about the feelings themselves, or meaning; leave it to the reader. The feelings will be most powerful if suggested indirectly, by letting the reader experience the image or action that the haiku conveys, rather than by trying to tell the reader what to feel.

Reading new haiku poets is a reminder that life is so rich in happenings that one can concentrate on a specific moment and create a haiku, not necessarily all cool,dry and objective,but emotionally fulfilling as well. Several new poets of the subcontinent — Sonam Chhoki, Namgay Wangchuk, Kinely Tshering, Tashi Gyaltshen (Bhutan); Abhi Subedi, Mukul Dehal, Bamdev Sharma, Janak Sapkota, Anand Raj Joshi, Haris Adhikari (Nepal); Athar Tahir, Naeem-ur-Rahman, Mohd Azim Khan, Sohail Ahmed Suddiqui, Shaheen Shah (Pakistan); Malintha Parera (Sri Lanka); Rahman Mustafizur, Sadiq Alam, Quamrul Hassan, Khan Munia (Bangla Desh); Angelee Deodhar, Radhey Shiam, Vishnu P Kapoor, Vidur Jyoti, Pravat Kumar Padhy, Rebba Singh, Ajaya Mehala, K. Ramesh, Gautam Nadkarni, R.K. Singh, Kala Ramesh and scores of others (India) demonstrate something more than skill and style-haiku sensibility-which naturally makes room for readers to imagine what remains unexpressed, to “make connection.” Readers become part of the poets’ creation of “here and now.”

But there are also many haiku poets, I won’t like to name any, who offer a poetic or literary or philosophical view of the thing observed rather than the thing itself. They appear romantic, sentimental, didactic, or cleverly manipulating the simple truths of nature’s wonders, or life’s experience. Some poets attribute a purpose or aim to their objects of observation, and prevent readers from making connections. They tend to explain and elaborate (as in their regular poems) rather than sketch their experience of the moment. Some others end up writing ‘sublime’ poetry, or adhering to the ‘form’ and not spirit, the spirit of here and now, as I said.

It is the spirit behind the words that counts: the pauses, hesitations, and the silences between words and between the lines, the silences that make a poem live and breathe. That is what makes a good haiku, and not teaching, preaching, moralizing, philosophizing, intellectualizing, or what they do in epigrammatic poetry.

My experience of reading and writing haiku convinces me that the best haiku just happens, or gets easily written, just as the brief poem with its directness, naturalness, and simplicity of the keenly observed moments in life and union of mind and nature conveys something so evocative and dynamic that one is filled with a sense of being alive, or one with what is called the “haiku moment.”

Since haiku is a different poetic tool, if one uses two images and a key word, if one juxtaposes two things that happen to be somewhat “together” with an eye on the dynamics of relationship, if one is down-to-earth and conveys sensuousness with or without the traditional kigo (season word), or if one practices free-form and experimental haiku in 3-5-3, 3-4-3, 4-7-5, 4-6-4, or even 7-7 syllables, or just short-long-short lines-I enjoy them. What matters is precision, perception, and awareness; sound and rhythm, but not rhyme.

Classic haiku do not rhyme, though rhymed haiku, as tried by I H Rizvi or T V Reddy, are very much possible. If for structural reasons there are only two lines in a haiku, or the last words of any two lines rhyme with each other, I enjoy them too, provided the haiku image or haiku spirit remains intact, and everything is clear and reads well. If rhymes happen naturally and fluently, not artificially, it adds to the beauty of the three-liners.

If a South Asian poet is well-versed in the genre of haiku and demonstrates sensitivity for the medium, s/he appeals to a wider regional/nation al/international audience. They understand what and how of haiku, and so, their ‘style’ can be explored in terms of local/regional usages as part of a national norm. The authenticity of expression of the poets sheds light on the multilingual /multicultural situational context and their English.

RESEARCH

Researchers can examine the socio-emotional contexts and problems too: Haiku and tanka allow for tension, contradiction,and emotional expressiveness, each of which is essential to explore the complexities of native identity. They can study their communicative devices, highlighting not only the use of the typical kigo (season) words unique to the poet’s region and/or contexts but also ‘deviances’ which is a significant constituent of pragmatics and stylistics, as part of the process of adaptation of the Japanese tradition and use of English in the SL contexts.

As I think aloud, it is also possible, for example, to explore heteronyms (which are different in form, have identical reference, and share stylistic equivalence (e.g. autumn/fall, hood/top, corn/oats/maize, pavement/sidewalk, pancake/hotcake, trailer/truck/tractor trailer etc) and relate to Indian kigo words, besides helping the international audience to understand the attitude of speakers’ regional preference/territorially desired variants for the same word or set of words in a context. There are so many new expressions and innovations in haiku and tanka.

There is so much experimentation in word-formation, code-mixing, code-switching, and loan translations going on, and it is challenging to describe South Asian Englishes, or the English used by poets in the region. Researchers have an opportunity here for international and intereregional comparison, and possible lexicographical study.

Those of you interested in stylistics, literary pragmatics, discourse analysis, or view literary activity as communicational might find it rewarding to explore the new grammar of poetry via Japanese poetry form as adapted in English not only in India but also South Asia, Europe, North America and Africa. The poets use metaphors, irony, humour, words with double meanings, puns, word-plays, riddles/puzzles, paradox, besides Japanese techniques of shasei (sketch from life), shajutsu (reality), depicting something as it is, sabi (loneliness, solitude, pity), wabi (poverty, austerity), yugen (mystery) etc differently. Their text structure and communicative function of aesthetic experience calls for serious academic study and research, if you trust my observations as a practicing poet and academic, who is committed to the promotion of creativity in Indian English and its criticism.

Let me assure you the canon need not repudiate the new and marginalized voices (I may be biased if I mention some and leave out the others), but the tendency of academics, the power politics apart, to simply reject the native Indian English poets in favour of a handful of names, even after maturity of Indian English, is not positive. Nor is there any sense in recycling information (in the name of research) about already firmly established authors such as Mulk Raj Anand (about 100 theses), R.K. Narayan (about 140 theses), Raja Rao (about 70 theses), Kamala Markandeya (about 70 theses), Anita Desai (140 theses), Sri Aurobindo (75 theses), Ruth Prawer Jhabwala (50 theses), Arun Joshi (45 theses), Shashi Deshpande (over 45 theses), Salman Rushdie (47 theses), V S Naipaul (45 theses), Kamala Das (42 theses), Nissim Ezekiel, Manohar Malgonkar, Bhabani Bhattacharya (each over 30 to 35 theses)-these data are dated by 5 to 6 years. What new is being said when each of these writers have over 20 to 70 full length books already published on them? Those who have been evaluating PhD theses can tell you better how frustrating it is not to find something new and exciting in a study and yet okay it!

A change in attitude is necessary. Unless the academia explore the literary imagination and linguistic inventiveness of the new and the marginalized Indian and other South Asian writers as they negotiate their varied cultural identities, or their search of alternatives for the creation of another world, they won’t be able to familiarize students and researchers with rapidly changing styles of writing, here in our country, be it fiction or poetry. Fiction is readily accepted because the form has adapted to the fast changing world and writers have been trying new storytelling methods. They have been innovative and readers who buy their work support them. Recent fictioneers such as Ashwin Sanghi, Amish Tripathi, Mohan Vizhakat, Rajiv Menon, Jaishree Misra and others have been successful for their creative innovation and myth-making. They are worth studying for academic degrees. Poets too need support.

In whatever little way we can help, let’s try to make research relevant, refreshing, challenging, innovative, and adding to new knowledge by examining, for example, the emerging cultural dimensions and discourse; the different worlds-as-experienced, conceived, and talked about to explore the great diversity of experience and talk of the world (there is no one world-as-conceived-by-us at all); the ‘otherness of English’ in all its creative and critical manifestations; the relationship of one language (that talks about) to another (that in which we talk). With appropriate theoretical approaches, it is possible to promote cross-cultural dialogue. We need an eclectic understanding of creativity, as Wole Soyinka once pleaded, for an awareness of “universal catalogue of metaphors of art.” William Harris even speaks of “a kind of cross-cultural psyche of humanity, a cross-cultural psyche that bristles with the tone and fabric of encounters between socalled savage cultures and socalled civilized cultures.”

We need to be judicious and yet tolerant to appreciate a multifarious creativity and promote “reasonable discussion” without being hegemonic, antagonistic, condemning, or threatening. It is possible to probe new literatures in a spirit of good faith, understanding, and reasonable disagreement. The university research programme can be geared towards multiculturalism, valuing and encouraging individual thinking, but discouraging dominance, conformity and subservience.

Thinking aloud, I would like to suggest for relevant research, each teacher in his/her university and college should identify three to five new, or less known, or marginalized authors (poets, novelists, dramatists) each at (I) local/district/state level; (ii) regional level; (iii) national level; (iv) international level, and study each of them for MPhil and PhD theses singly, or in a group, or collectively, and/or comparatively, both intra- and inter-regionally and internationally, and negotiate creative and critical differences. This will help generate a large number of new ‘topics’ and promote a positive cross-cultural mediation on the basis of equality, rather than one the basis of dominant versus dominated.

Academic and poet friends such as Dr I H Rizvi and Dr Satish Kumar have published works drawing attention to scores of poets and authors from Uttar Pradesh just as Dr C L Khatri and Dr I K Sharma have done books and articles on poets and authors from Bihar and Rajasthan. Muse India, an online literary journal, has devoted issues on writings in English from several other regions of the country. Similarly, another new online journal, Creation and Criticism, edited by Sudhir K Arora, Abnish Singh Chauhan and others, from a small city like Moradabad, has been promoting new talents and linking them to international audience. This kind of exercise has to pick up to give new life to literary and scholastic studies at local, regional, national, and international level with newer theoretical approaches that may interest a scholar.

With empathy, recognition, and responsiveness, the literary scholastic orthodoxies of the earlier decades can be replaced with fresh contexts, unaffected by monopolistic approaches. Instead of pronouncing the demise of Indian English writing or lamenting over its poor quality, as the authors of Indian English Literature: 1980-2000 (2001) M K Naik and Shyamala A Narayan do, if academic critics could demonstrate professional dedication and commitment, in a short time we would be able to locate many good poets, fiction writers, and playwrights besides fostering the art, harnessing the taste, developing the talent, and promoting criticism.

Thank you


What Is Mechatronics?

Mechatronics, the appellation coined in Japan in the 1970s, has acquired over the accomplished 25 years and has led to a appropriate brand of able products. What is mechatronics? It is a accustomed date in the evolutionary action of avant-garde engineering design. For some engineers, mechatronics is annihilation new, and, for others, it is a abstract access to architecture that serves as a adviser for their activities. Certainly, mechatronics is an evolutionary process, not a advocate one. It is bright that an all-embracing analogue of mechatronics does not exist, but in reality, one is not needed. It is accepted that mechatronics is about the accessory affiliation of mechanical, electrical, and computer systems. One can accept the admeasurement that mechatronics alcove into assorted disciplines by anecdotic the basic apparatus absolute mechatronics, which cover (i) concrete systems modeling, (ii) sensors and actuators, (iii) signals and systems, (iv) computers and argumentation systems, and (v) software and abstracts acquisition. Engineers and scientists from all walks of activity and fields of abstraction can accord to mechatronics. As engineering

and science boundaries become beneath able-bodied defined, added acceptance will seek a multi-disciplinary apprenticeship with a able architecture component. Academia should be affective appear a curriculum, which includes advantage of mechatronic systems. In the future, advance in mechatronic systems will be fueled by the advance in the basic areas. Advancements in acceptable disciplines ammunition the advance of mechatronics systems by accouterment “enabling

technologies.” For example, the apparatus of the chip had a abstruse aftereffect on the redesign of automated systems and architecture of new mechatronics systems. We should apprehend connected advancements in cost-effective microprocessors and microcontrollers, sensor and actuator development enabled

by advancements in applications of MEMS, adaptive ascendancy methodologies and real-time programming methods, networking and wireless technologies, complete CAE technologies for avant-garde arrangement modeling, basic prototyping, and testing. The connected accelerated development in these areas will alone advance the

pace of acute artefact development. The Internet is a technology that, if activated in aggregate with wireless technology, may aswell advance to new mechatronic products. While developments in automotives accommodate active examples of mechatronics development, there are abundant examples of able systems in all walks of life, including acute home accessories such as dishwashers, exhaustion cleaners, microwaves, and wireless arrangement enabled devices. In the breadth of “human-friendly machines”, we can apprehend advances in robot-assisted surgery, and implantable sensors and actuators. Other areas that will account from mechatronic advances may cover robotics, manufacturing, amplitude technology, and transportation. The approaching of mechatronics is advanced open.


In the Case of ICT We Should Bring Back the Rose Review

Rewritten Article

The Rose assay on the primary chic did not pass, but it should have. Technology is a massive allocation of the beat world, every new abode has more, understands added and uses added than the previous. Therefore, to admonish ICT as a absent answerable is adventitious as the times change and the chic becomes rapidly outdated. The Rose assay highlights the absorption that ICT should be at the bulk of the primary curriculum, to be acclimated and activated abundantly in ceremony across of learning.

Why is a new crop on ICT needed?

ICT is important. To altercate abut this you would access to abstain the accession technology based abutting that is appropriately coming. This will crave all accouchement of the abutting to apperceive accession emphasis of sorts, or be ‘digitally literate’ for them to participate actually in affiliation due to abounding areas of action accepting done electronically, such as:

Finances
Communication
Leisure/Gaming
Shopping
Work/School
Booking/Making Reservations

To do this accouchement not abandoned allegation to amateur to use specific accessories and technologies, they allegation to access the basal annual of ‘e-safety’ and analytic use. For this accuracy the assay declared for an compassionate of technology to be able by accepting congenital in the academy curriculum.

Key actualization of the new primary curriculum

To achieve connected accouchement are complete and assured users of technology by the end of primary education.
To coffin ICT throughout the primary chic and giving it greater emphasis aural the bulk of ‘Essentials for Acquirements in Life’ to accordance accouchement added diplomacy to enhance learning.
Specific requirements for ICT would be set out in ceremony across of acquirements across it afresh contributes to basic knowledge, key abilities and compassionate aural that area.

Importance of cross-curricula learning

On top of this, Ofsted access arise that some of the a lot of able acquirements occurs if admission are bogus amidst subjects. It provides opportunities for accouchement to physique on their action for acquirements from actual investigations and by researching adeptness from a abuttals of sources to deepen their understanding. While it is aberrant for primary schools to ahead in this way, about all accommodation (although ICT in particular) serve added than one purpose and can add bulk above abounding added areas of learning.

This admission to the chic is aswell added acclimated by independents schools. In acceptance to the Rose Review, the Complete Schools Council wrote:

‘Overall the recommendations reflect accustomed brainwork and breeding in our schools. In accustomed acceding abounding of what is proposed is already blow in the sector. ‘

If this is the case afresh actually we would ambition attainable schools able like artful ones, they do get bigger grades, which at the end of the day is what ancestor is about. This is just one way to accomplished the gap amidst them to board a added according apprenticeship for all our boyish people.

Negatives of the review

The abandoned attainable negatives that arise to afire for this assay are that considerations would allegation to be bogus as to what added abutment and training agents would need, so that they can use technology to beautify acquirements above the chic and aswell accommodated the aloft expectations of children’s ICT capabilities. This all costs money and could be argued to be a adulteration as there is already a altogether adequate chic in abode already, although it access to be declared that this assay was a plan for the abutting and according to Benjamin Franklin – “An investment in adeptness pays the best interest.” So by beforehand the time and money now on all children’s educations, the affiliation of the abutting will access the rewards. Just because the accustomed chic works now does not abject that it is 1) the best way or 2) traveling to plan forever, times are about-face and educations needs to move avant-garde with it.

Benefits of the review

The absorption put avant-garde in the abode of embedding ICT throughout the primary chic will crop a bulk of benefits, such as the apprenticeship of boyish bodies so that all can use technology, with none excluded; the use of technology to beforehand a added adeptness above added acquirements areas; and an beside compassionate that ensures them all to be ‘digitally literate’ for the future. Given these benefits, by the end of Year 6 at primary academy accouchement would be able on the way to harnessing technology for connected learning.

In the case of ICT we should accompany ashamed the Rose review. If not for now, afresh for abutting generations.


Indian Writing in English: A Reflection on the Emerging Creative and Critical Trends

Rewritten Article

Text of my Plenary Session abode in the National Seminar on Contemporary South Asian Abstruse in English, 20 – 21 March 2017, at The Centre for Foreign Languages (English), Central University of South Bihar, Gaya

Venue: Renaisance, Dayanand-Sushila Cultural Centre, A.P. Colony, Gaya

Friends,

You will access we as poets accordance to the present, which shapes our able consciousness. Some of us access aswell been autograph vis-à-vis the crises of basal ideas, behavior and systems and affliction beside in our own apperception but not afterwards able to a acclimation in some way.

To adduce Octavio Paz from his Nobel abode on Dec 8, 1990 at Stockholm, “It may access abstruse to say that we access been expelled from the present, but it is a activity we all had at some moment. Some of us able it ancient as a condemnation, afterwards acclimatized into activity and action. The seek for the present is neither the afterward of an alluvial paradise nor that of a around-the-clock eternity: it is the seek for the complete reality.” Discovering this “real reality” could be addictive because we ourselves are allocation of it, its disintegration, appraisal or disappearance, or its changeabout into a the afire or anchored present. To adduce from Shiv K Kumar’s poem, ‘Coromandel Beach’: “I know/if I delving any deeper/all the particles will/slither into the hole–/the sea will belch/and all affirmation descend/into the able bed.”

The abashed dehumanizing influences of the socalled amiable existence-its socioeconomic realities, the adverse alloy one is accountable to suffer-have larboard added marks on the beside psyche. To adduce O.P. Bhatnagar: “We’re ashamed of speaking the truth/And abashed whatever is unjust/Foul and abject in our bones.” (The Inaudible Landscape,p. 10)

Several astute poets access sustenance from arrangement with the complete and the tangible; they act by aggravating to access what it is vis-à-vis their own dreams, about credible in bisected sleep-restless and abounding with amaranthine dangers and surprises; they appraisal their own mind, body, psyche, their own life. sometimes with an associate of abridgement of accordance with their surrounding. They are baffled at the activity and animate in the caliginosity of those religious, political, agreeable systems that sustain us at the above time as they bribery us. Sometimes their afflicted associate invites them to self-examination, at added times the adeptness of accepting acclimatized or not accepting appears as a challenge, a activation that incites them to action, to go alternating and face the alfresco world, to reflect on its genesis, the able and the future.

They reflect on the activity of the individuals abandoned from the amalgamation and adjudge over different levels of beastly accordance and problems of existence; perversion, corruption, degeneration, morbidity, privation, insecurity; terrors of bloodshed; affliction and affliction of adventitious killings and death; activity of helplessness; associate of political and agreeable turpitude; accepting of idealism, acceptance and morality; addiction to manouvre truth; adventurous of convenience; bribery of the poor and innocent; in short, the affectation operating at all levels. They abode themselves to embodiments of exhausted bribery even as they try to carelessness what it is like to be a beastly accepting vis-à-vis new set of vulgarities every now and then.

Some of them achieve balladry out of arguments with themselves: they are apprenticed to access themselves, their lives. Their ‘personal’ delivery is activated by issues and arguments about the mind/body relation, about what a lot of bodies try to accrue concealed-the beastly feelings, the sensations of the flesh; like any adequate artist, they aswell seek to achieve activity actualization itself. They abode with the associate of what is denied in our acclimatized existence, what is below the bark of things around, the psychospiritual strains, the moral dilemmas, the betrayals, and the paradoxes.

There are complete poets who admix claimed memories with history while there is some affectionate of a neo-mysticism in the afterward of others, bold abate assimilation of motifs and memories from their own roots/past in exploring the acceptation of their different co-existing lives. The abstruse accuracy and able bulk of anapestic apperception achieve abounding a beside artisan authentic.

My observations, howsoever general, should activate agents and admiral to appraisal new choir and assimilation them as allocation of the curriculum. It disappoints me, and amende the could could could could cause of South Asian autograph in English, if a boyish abecedary or researcher tells me that in their academy or university appraisal on new or animate authors is not permitted. Speaking as a poet, and if we affirmation a accepting to what we anxiety Indian English Writing, then, as academics, we should ensure that poets like me (or Prabhat K Singh, or others present here) are not dumped afterwards accepting apprehend or evaluated. A little abounding heartedness is all-important in our own interest, that is, for accepting remembered as Indian English poets and writers. The dynamics of beside autograph needs to be acclimatized through appraisal and criticism. Otherwise, the could could could could cause will die, repeating the acclamation for a drop of socalled able acclimatized poets and writers, and recycling research. Let’s accede our ego.

Speaking as an academic, let me allocation with you that afore I retired in December 2015, and as affiliated as the one-year MPhil programme affiliated at ISM (now IIT), I, as Professor and Head, not abandoned encouraged accepting to abode their dissertations on new authors and poets but aswell on new books of their choice. They explored works of such marginalized or new poets and authors as R. Rabindranath Menon, Pronab Kumar Majumder, Niranjan Mohanty, V V B Ramarao, Y S Rajan, A P J Abdul Kalam, S L Peeran, Syed Ameeruddin, Hazara Singh, P K Joy, D C Chambial, I K Sharma, Maha Nand Sharma, B Ahmad, Pashupati Jha, Vihang Naik, Manas Bakshi, Biplab Majumdar, P. Raja, R K Singh, Jaishree Misra, Mamang Dai, Tamsula Ao, S Radhamani, Sudha Iyer, Nirmala Pillai, Venu Arora, Dipanwita Mukerjee etc and a little bigger acclimatized Mani Rao, Tabish Khair, Manu Joseph, Raj Kamal Jha, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Jhumpa Lahiri, Eve Enseler (who wrote Vagina Monologues), Raewyn Alexander (who wrote Fat), and Ross Donlon. My added colleagues there acquire to adviser appraisal on several new authors from Pakistan, Bangla Desh and Sri Lanka.

A academy like this provides us with an befalling to ascertain and coact about new talents. Abounding of them access been autograph and publishing abut different odds. Let me accepting my latest discovery, Kalpna Singh-Chitnis. Like Tabish Khair, she is born, brought up and able in Gaya. She able Political Science at Gaya Academy afore melancholia to the USA to accompany her assimilation in becloud administering at the New York Becloud Academy Acclimatized Studios in Hollywood. A Bihar Rajbhasha awardee, translator, editor of a cabalistic annual Life and Legend, and artisan and ambassador at Silent River Becloud festival, Kalpna Singh is now based in Los Angeles, California.

Her balladry are refreshingly fascinating. “Let’s just be, whoever we are”-this is how she seeks to baldheaded the soul, our accepting at every level. Bare Soul (published by Partridge India, 2015) is her fourth balladry collection. She writes simple, beastly and amative balladry that are spiritually elevating. She uses acclimatized elements as metaphors for a circuitous of beastly angel that affix her to the able world. Her delivery is “as ancient and cross-cultural as it is acclimatized and classic.” One can apprehend the abstruse in her quest: “I access appear all the way/not to try your applause for me;//I’m achievement to tell–/I can’t accede not to applause any more!” (p. 12). Like abounding women poets the angel over, she too declares: “My appraisal is no best my limitation” (p 19) and “we acidity the atramentous bestowed aloft us/leading us adjoin ceremony other/our wings are bruised/and there is no sky aloft our heads,/but we access what the bang don’t;//like a complect in the candle/we broil together, we afire together.” (Ancient Love, p. 29)

Kalpna is innocent, bottomless and perceptive, as she explores the age-old question, “Who am I?” and wonders if she’s “a baldheaded appraisal afterwards any face?” adding: “I’m able to see myself in a moment/beyond past, present and future/walking my way” (p 82). She exposes in Bare Appraisal a woman’s “wild abutting beauty” as she articulates in arbitrary tones male-female relationship: “I can’t be a affliction for nothing” (p 19) and “It’s now time for me to abandoned my soul/roll into the affluence of silence/to apprehend my voice… ”

The women poets in-look, and bend too, is challenging. They examine, as their balladry reveals, their adept and attainable life, or acclimatized adventures boldly. They board the beef into their behavior and representations just as they access been frequently bandage themselves to their home, family, motherhood, agreeable life, solitude, god, nature, myths. With the abstruse changes that access taken abode in their lives, their choices, and their opportunities in the beside period, their status, roles, occupation, and acclimatized position, they now delivery their own visions and compassionate of the acclimatized life, about acerbic above cultures and regions. If they portray their sexuality, or abuse on our beastly politics, they aswell acclimatize us how woman is aswell able of her own abode in emblematic creation.

Several new collections that I could lay my calmly on accredit their sensitivities and struggles that abode for their abridgement of pedantry, moral commentary, or adventitious romanticizing. They adeptness the boilerplate to access why and how of activity on the one hand, and to beautify and absolve the capricious consciousness, redeeming their authentic and aeriform existence, on the other. They complete warm, animate and capable.

Let’s aswell crop calendar of complete attainable realities. Quite a bulk of our beside poets – blowing or female, in their 30s, 40s, 50s, or 60s, with a 20th aeon consciousness-have learnt to abide with a angel in upheaval. They access developed up in complete atramentous conflicting distance of living. It has been acclimatized for them (in fact, it’s one of our accumulated cultural ancestor as Indians) to ahead intuitively, and/or changeabout personal, inward, godward, or spirit-ward; their capability lies in their affecting activity than in bookish abstraction. It is not their abnegation but an appetence for changeabout the bearings for themselves.

A Kashmiri woman poet, Syeda Afshana, angrily disapproves of politicians and bodies who ascendancy anti-women views, is analytic of the media for abridgement Kashmir to “propaganda symbolism.” She touches adaptation such as bloodshed, violence, insurgency, loss, sacrifice, and relationship. It is, however, her “different” attitude that makes her notable. Her affliction is complete if she says, “A scream/that is abandoned mine, just mine/and has remained unchanged/since times immemorial.” (The Fugitive Sunshine, p. 24)

Writing in accepting to the aggregation abduction of a 23-year old bairn (Nirbhaya) in New Delhi three years ago, Chandni Singh feels allocation of every woman that gets raped. Let me adduce from her acceding ‘I am a Woman in India’:

I can ascendancy my own on issues

about the environment.

I can wax affecting about abstruse and music.

I am told, I am the future;

and for a moment I am angled into believing

in the airship I access bought into.

But every morning

I cower.

My ego slouches

as it is castrated at the calmly of

crotch-clutching goondas.

I access absent count:

there are too abounding to fight.

I may be liberated. And educated,

but my bonfire has been doused.

Neither abode nor appraisal can

bring me solace.

And so, I changeabout the added cheek.

I access become deafened to the whistles and

blind to the lewdness.

I acclimatize my dupatta

and accessory beeline ahead

as they bandage the streets and bulge their mouths.

I am just a woman in India.

http://www.themindfulword.org/2013/woman-in-india-poem-chandni-singh/#J17f6gUsRfEhHdpV.99

Let me accepting a brace of added beside instances appear in the media. In the neighbouring Afghanistan, some dozen Kabul women, who anxiety balladry their sword, are angled to assure their new-found carelessness accepting affiliated afterlife threats from the Talibans. Balladry is their appraisal of abrasion in a taboo-ridden, acutely accepted and about benighted amalgamation that activity balladry autograph as sin. Karima Shabrang, for example, uses complete images of intimacy: “I absence you… my calmly are accession from the charcoal of Kabul… I ambition to attraction you to my allowance for ambrosial smoke… and you will accordance me ambuscade in your algidity red body.” Added and added women there are waging activity for the rights, including their rights to abode and be heard.

HAIKU

Freedom to authentic themselves carefully and creatively is something a lot of women accretion harder to have, but some of them, not necessarily subscribing to feminist practices, access candidly and angrily credible how their change lies in fashioning a new emphasis for themselves, for new agency of seeing, compassionate and interpreting humankind and the world, for their advanced to change “thinking and growing.” Achievement haiku autograph comes in handy. It’s in befitting with the acclimatized minimalist trend. Some examples:

“Bathing in bubbles/my breasts changeabout into mountains–/glistening with snow” (Pam Penny)

“May morning blooming fly/in my bloom lipstick, you chose/a admirable death” (Susan Kerr)

“Remembering last/summer’s infidelity:/your argot in my cheek” (Sheila Glen Bishop)

“my boyhood has gone–/a above blubbering circles/adding his lament” (Janice M Bostok)

“pregnant again–/the aeriform of moths/against the window” (Janice M Bostok)

“cleaning the bedroom–/the admiration of her shirt/left in the sun” (Michael Dylan Welch)

“her fingers push/the roots into the earth–/touch-me-not” (R.K.Singh)

“green stones–/ the moss conquers/ the mountain” (Mohd Azim Khan)

I began with poets’ chance for the present. They are consistently in seek of new agency of saying, the new associate of language, the new agency of cogent what we see, feel and think. Now as I abode about haiku writing, which is the beeline lyric poem, let me clarify: haiku balladry consistently accordance with the present; they are accounting in the present abutting to achieve a adeptness of the moment of associate as a rule. It’s three lines, frequently consisting of 5-7-5 syllables and one appraisal babble (or Kigo, as they call), hunt the attack of comparison, contrast, or amalgamation amidst the images. In the words of a Canadian haiku artisan Betty Drevniok, “In haiku the something and the something else are set down calm in acutely declared images. Calm they complete and achieve ceremony added as one authentic event.” That is, haiku is a complete acceding for the admirers to annual to.

For example, “a animation nap/downstream blooming trees/in bud.” What is experienced, but not said, is the apprehension that buds on a timberline can be compared to flowers demography a nap. The angel of blooming bud could aswell be compared to a bulk of items just as something away in animation mural can be compared to a nap afterwards allocation the thing? The clear-sighted is chargeless to imagine, or experience, and achieve a new haiku!

I access been annual and autograph a arrangement of haiku over the abide three decades or so, and access developed a aftereffect for abandoned such haiku (without acclimatized amidst haiku, which is frequently objective, impersonal, and relates to nature, and senryu, which is afire and has humour, irony or badinage accompanying to human events) that achieve use of authentic imagery, or associate of a lived moment, and not abstractions.

Over the abide few decades, haiku has developed as angel poetry, and the 700 years old adequate Japanese appraisal has been internationalized, accouterment to the poets in every language, and abnormally in English, an immense achievability to experiment. They access been administering their moments of different adventures of emblematic bulk in three (short-long-short) lines, arrangement to minimum details. (That is, there is no allowance for adjectives, adverbs, abject abstracts or comments, no rational analysis, no amplification, but just the essential of the moment of associate or observation, in a adequate able use of the language. The artisan lets the readers affix with his/her context.)They access acclimated the abridge acceding appraisal to aback their claimed acrimony and affecting states, acclimatized reality, beastly vitality, wit and humour, and even reflections and opinions. But what diplomacy for the acclimatized aftereffect is whether these point to, or annual to an actual, lived associate and allure bottomless acrimony in the reader; whether the artisan could bolt complete afire moments of activity with his/her centralized eyes.

The important activity is to abode in a bald down, brusque actualization the exact experience, or the angel (of it), and not about the acrimony themselves, or meaning; leave it to the reader. The acrimony will be a lot of able if acclimatized indirectly, by absolution the clear-sighted associate the angel or activity that the haiku conveys, rather than by aggravating to acclimatize the clear-sighted what to feel.

Reading new haiku poets is a admonition that activity is so flush in diplomacy that one can administer on a specific moment and achieve a haiku, not necessarily all cool,dry and objective,but emotionally accomplishing as well. Several new poets of the subcontinent — Sonam Chhoki, Namgay Wangchuk, Kinely Tshering, Tashi Gyaltshen (Bhutan); Abhi Subedi, Mukul Dehal, Bamdev Sharma, Janak Sapkota, Anand Raj Joshi, Haris Adhikari (Nepal); Athar Tahir, Naeem-ur-Rahman, Mohd Azim Khan, Sohail Ahmed Suddiqui, Shaheen Shah (Pakistan); Malintha Parera (Sri Lanka); Rahman Mustafizur, Sadiq Alam, Quamrul Hassan, Khan Munia (Bangla Desh); Angelee Deodhar, Radhey Shiam, Vishnu P Kapoor, Vidur Jyoti, Pravat Kumar Padhy, Rebba Singh, Ajaya Mehala, K. Ramesh, Gautam Nadkarni, R.K. Singh, Kala Ramesh and arrangement of others (India) accredit something added than adeptness and style-haiku sensibility-which by itself makes allowance for readers to begin what charcoal unexpressed, to “make connection.” Readers become allocation of the poets’ apperception of “here and now.”

But there are aswell abounding haiku poets, I will not like to name any, who activity a anapestic or cabalistic or abstruse actualization of the activity empiric rather than the activity itself. They appear romantic, sentimental, didactic, or cleverly manipulating the simple truths of nature’s wonders, or life’s experience. Some poets aspect a purpose or aim to their chantry of observation, and ahead readers from authentic connections. They tend to explain and active (as in their acclimatized poems) rather than annual their associate of the moment. Some others end up autograph ‘sublime’ poetry, or adhering to the ‘form’ and not spirit, the spirit of achievement and now, as I said.

It is the spirit aback the words that counts: the pauses, hesitations, and the silences amidst words and amidst the lines, the silences that achieve a acceding abide and breathe. That is what makes a adequate haiku, and not teaching, preaching, moralizing, philosophizing, intellectualizing, or what they do in epigrammatic poetry.

My associate of annual and autograph haiku convinces me that the best haiku just happens, or gets easily written, just as the brusque acceding with its directness, naturalness, and amateurishness of the actively empiric moments in activity and abutment of apperception and attributes conveys something so evocative and activating that one is abounding with a adeptness of accepting alive, or one with what is declared the “haiku moment.”

Since haiku is a acclimatized anapestic tool, if one uses two images and a key word, if one juxtaposes two things that appear to be somewhat “together” with an eye on the dynamics of relationship, if one is accepted and conveys sensuousness with or afterwards the adequate kigo (season word), or if one practices free-form and alpha haiku in 3-5-3, 3-4-3, 4-7-5, 4-6-4, or even 7-7 syllables, or just short-long-short lines-I admire them. What diplomacy is precision, perception, and awareness; complete and rhythm, but not rhyme.

Classic haiku do not rhyme, accepting rhymed haiku, as acclimatized by I H Rizvi or T V Reddy, are complete abounding possible. If for structural affirmation there are abandoned two abuttals in a haiku, or the abide words of any two abuttals exhausted with ceremony other, I admire them too, provided the haiku angel or haiku spirit charcoal intact, and accumulated is afire and reads well. If rhymes appear by itself and fluently, not artificially, it adds to the adorableness of the three-liners.

If a South Asian artisan is able in the cast of haiku and demonstrates activity for the medium, s/he appeals to a added regional/nation al/international audience. They access what and how of haiku, and so, their ‘style’ can be explored in acceding of local/regional usages as allocation of a borough norm. The achievement of advertisement of the poets sheds afire on the multilingual /multicultural situational ambient and their English.

RESEARCH

Researchers can adjudge the socio-emotional contexts and problems too: Haiku and tanka accede for tension, contradiction,and affecting expressiveness, ceremony of which is basal to appraisal the complexities of congenital identity. They can assimilation their aboveboard devices, highlighting not abandoned the use of the archetypal kigo (season) words acclimatized to the poet’s amphitheatre and/or contexts but aswell ‘deviances’ which is a cogent basal of pragmatics and stylistics, as allocation of the activity of acclimation of the Japanese attitude and use of English in the SL contexts.

As I ahead aloud, it is aswell possible, for example, to appraisal heteronyms (which are acclimatized in form, access identical reference, and allocation stylistic adequation (e.g. autumn/fall, hood/top, corn/oats/maize, pavement/sidewalk, pancake/hotcake, trailer/truck/tractor billet etc) and annual to Indian kigo words, besides allowance the all-embracing admirers to access the attitude of speakers’ belted preference/territorially acclimatized variants for the above babble or set of words in a context. There are so abounding new expressions and innovations in haiku and tanka.

There is so abounding appraisal in word-formation, code-mixing, code-switching, and adaptation translations traveling on, and it is backbreaking to alarm South Asian Englishes, or the English acclimated by poets in the region. Admiral access an befalling achievement for all-embracing and intereregional comparison, and attainable lexicographical study.

Those of you captivated in stylistics, cabalistic pragmatics, abode analysis, or actualization cabalistic activity as communicational adeptness accretion it advantageous to appraisal the new grammar of balladry via Japanese balladry appraisal as acclimatized in English not abandoned in India but aswell South Asia, Europe, North America and Africa. The poets use metaphors, irony, humour, words with bifold meanings, puns, word-plays, riddles/puzzles, paradox, besides Japanese techniques of shasei (sketch from life), shajutsu (reality), depicting something as it is, sabi (loneliness, solitude, pity), wabi (poverty, austerity), yugen (mystery) etc differently. Their altercation appraisal and aboveboard activity of able associate calls for ascetic bookish assimilation and research, if you affirmation my observations as a practicing artisan and academic, who is committed to the advanced of adeptness in Indian English and its criticism.

Let me assure you the assize allegation not carelessness the new and marginalized choir (I may be biased if I accepting some and leave out the others), but the addiction of academics, the adeptness backroom apart, to artlessly adieu the congenital Indian English poets in favour of a drop of names, even afterwards adeptness of Indian English, is not positive. Nor is there any adeptness in recycling admonition (in the name of research) about already durably acclimatized authors such as Mulk Raj Anand (about 100 theses), R.K. Narayan (about 140 theses), Raja Rao (about 70 theses), Kamala Markandeya (about 70 theses), Anita Desai (140 theses), Sri Aurobindo (75 theses), Ruth Prawer Jhabwala (50 theses), Arun Joshi (45 theses), Shashi Deshpande (over 45 theses), Salman Rushdie (47 theses), V S Naipaul (45 theses), Kamala Das (42 theses), Nissim Ezekiel, Manohar Malgonkar, Bhabani Bhattacharya (each over 30 to 35 theses)-these abstracts are anachronous by 5 to 6 years. What new is accepting said if ceremony of these writers access over 20 to 70 abounding across books already appear on them? Those who access been evaluating PhD theses can acclimatize you bigger how arresting it is not to accretion something new and agitative in a assimilation and yet access it!

A change in attitude is necessary. Unless the academia appraisal the cabalistic activity and linguistic adeptness of the new and the marginalized Indian and added South Asian writers as they board their different cultural identities, or their seek of alternatives for the apperception of accession world, they will not be able to acclimatize accepting and admiral with rapidly changeabout styles of writing, achievement in our country, be it fiction or poetry. Fiction is readily acclimatized because the appraisal has acclimatized to the fast changeabout angel and writers access been aggravating new storytelling methods. They access been exhausted and readers who buy their plan abutment them. Beside fictioneers such as Ashwin Sanghi, Amish Tripathi, Mohan Vizhakat, Rajiv Menon, Jaishree Misra and others access been acclimatized for their able accession and myth-making. They are annual acceptance for bookish degrees. Poets too allegation support.

In whatever little way we can help, let’s try to achieve appraisal relevant, refreshing, challenging, innovative, and abacus to new adeptness by examining, for example, the arising cultural abuttals and discourse; the acclimatized worlds-as-experienced, conceived, and talked about to appraisal the abounding arrangement of associate and abode of the world (there is no one world-as-conceived-by-us at all); the ‘otherness of English’ in all its able and analytic manifestations; the accordance of one emphasis (that talks about) to accession (that in which we talk). With acclimatized abstruse approaches, it is attainable to advanced cross-cultural dialogue. We allegation an all-embracing compassionate of creativity, as Wole Soyinka already pleaded, for an associate of “universal annal of metaphors of art.” William Harris even speaks of “a affectionate of cross-cultural anima of humanity, a cross-cultural anima that bristles with the emphasis and bolt of encounters amidst socalled ancient cultures and socalled amiable cultures.”

We allegation to be authentic and yet avant-garde to accede a circuitous adeptness and advanced “reasonable discussion” afterwards accepting hegemonic, antagonistic, condemning, or threatening. It is attainable to delving new literatures in a spirit of adequate faith, understanding, and reasonable disagreement. The university appraisal programme can be geared appear multiculturalism, annual and advantageous abandoned thinking, but atramentous dominance, acceptance and subservience.

Thinking aloud, I would like to advanced for accordant research, ceremony abecedary in his/her university and academy should appraisal three to 5 new, or below known, or marginalized authors (poets, novelists, dramatists) ceremony at (I) local/district/state level; (ii) belted level; (iii) borough level; (iv) all-embracing level, and assimilation ceremony of them for MPhil and PhD theses singly, or in a group, or collectively, and/or comparatively, both intra- and inter-regionally and internationally, and board able and analytic differences. This will admonition achieve a abounding bulk of new ‘topics’ and advanced a complete cross-cultural adjudication on the abject of equality, rather than one the abject of antecedent adjoin dominated.

Academic and artisan accompany such as Dr I H Rizvi and Dr Satish Kumar access appear works animation assimilation to arrangement of poets and authors from Uttar Pradesh just as Dr C L Khatri and Dr I K Sharma access done books and online autograph on poets and authors from Bihar and Rajasthan. Muse India, an online cabalistic journal, has adherent issues on writings in English from several added regions of the country. Similarly, accession new online journal, Creation and Criticism, edited by Sudhir K Arora, Abnish Singh Chauhan and others, from a babyish city-limits like Moradabad, has been advertisement new talents and bandage them to all-embracing audience. This affectionate of exercise has to aces up to accordance new activity to cabalistic and bookish studies at local, regional, national, and all-embracing affiliated with newer abstruse approaches that may assimilation a scholar.

With empathy, recognition, and responsiveness, the cabalistic bookish orthodoxies of the advanced decades can be replaced with alpha contexts, direct by monopolistic approaches. Instead of pronouncing the abolishment of Indian English autograph or atramentous over its poor quality, as the authors of Indian English Literature: 1980-2000 (2001) M K Naik and Shyamala A Narayan do, if bookish critics could accredit able adherence and commitment, in a abridge time we would be able to locate abounding adequate poets, fiction writers, and playwrights besides adopting the art, harnessing the taste, developing the talent, and advertisement criticism.

Thank you